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Graphics & Illustrations Information

What does "dpi" mean?
Can I embed color images in my manuscript?
How many graphics can I include within the text of my book?
What is iUniverse's graphics policy?
Why do the colors used in my book cover vary slightly on the iUniverse Web site, on the pdf of the cover proof, and on the actual printed book?
In which format should I send my electronic images?
Will you scan photos or graphics for my book?
What size should I make my images?
What is the preferred resolution for submitting raster images?
What is a "grayscale image"?
What is a "TIFF" file?
What happens to image quality if I scan my image and then increase its size?
What does "ppi" mean?
What do you mean when you say a graphic must be "high-resolution?"
How should I submit my preferred cover graphics to iUniverse?
Why do the colors used in my book cover vary slightly on the iUniverse Web site, on the PDF of the cover proof, and on the actual printed book?
What is the difference between CMYK and RGB color for graphics?
My original book has color/sepia illustrations. How will they be printed?


 What does "dpi" mean?

The term dpi refers to "dots per inch." Dpi is often synonymous with ppi or "pixels per inch." It is a standard way of describing an image's resolution. When printed, an image with a high resolution contains more pixels, or dots, than an image with a low resolution. For example, a 1-by-1-inch image with a resolution of 72 dpi contains a total of 5184 pixels (72 pixels wide x 72 pixels high = 5184). The same 1-by-1-inch image with a resolution of 300 ppi contains a total of 90 thousand pixels. Higher-resolution images reproduce more detail and subtler color transitions than lower-resolution images.

Using too low a resolution for a printed image results in pixelation, output with large, coarse-looking pixels and jagged edges. Using too high a resolution increases the file size and slows the printing of the image; furthermore, the device will be unable to reproduce the extra detail provided by the higher resolution image.

Adjusting dpi

Increasing the resolution (the dpi) of an image should be done by resampling the original (e.g., re-scanning the original photograph at a higher dpi setting). Increasing the resolution by other means (e.g., modifying it in Adobe Photoshop) only spreads the original pixel information across a greater number of pixels; it rarely improves image quality.

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Can I embed color images in my manuscript?

No. Only the cover can be printed in color. We prefer that your images not be embedded within your manuscript but sent to us as individual .jpg or .tif files. The image files can be sent in color but will be converted to black and white for design use. Black and white images are also commonly referred to as "grayscale."

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How many graphics can I include within the text of my book?

iUniverse allows authors to include black-and-white graphic images in the book block of their manuscript, for an additional fee. Graphics include images such as graphs, screen shots, charts, line drawings or photographs.

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What is iUniverse's graphics policy?

iUniverse allows authors to include black and white graphic images in the book block of their manuscript for an additional fee. Graphics include images such as graphs, screen shots, charts, line drawings or photographs. Each of the iUniverse publishing packages includes the ability to include a specified number of images within your book at no extra cost. Please check with your Publishing Consultant or your Check-In Coordinator for the number of images included with your specific package. Authors must have permission or the legal right to use the graphics that are submitted.

Graphics Fee

$5.00 per each additional item

Submitting Graphics

New Manuscripts

Any graphics to be included in the book block must be 300 dpi images in TIFF (.tif) file format, and must be provided as individual and separate files. The manuscript should identify placeholders for each of the interior graphics where the image will later appear. Please do not embed the images in your manuscript. You may send the images in color or in black and white, but if the images are sent to use in color they will be converted to grayscale for design and printing purposes.

Out-of-Print Books

iUniverse recreates new editions of out-of-print books by digitally scanning the pages of the original book text. If the original text includes graphics, the fees as listed in the Fee Schedule apply for the special processing required.

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Why do the colors used in my book cover vary slightly on the iUniverse Web site, on the PDF of the cover proof and on the actual printed book?

The same cover graphic is used by each medium (book cover, Web site photo, PDF) that needs to display or use it. A number of variables come into play when working with or viewing files electronically, such as calibration of the computer monitor, type of printer and lighting and perception of color. While the cover graphic remains the same, the medium with which the customer is viewing the cover does change, and so may the colors. Within the digital printing industry, there is an ongoing effort to improve the standards of cover reproduction and color management.

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In which format should I send my electronic images?

We prefer images to be in TIFF format. The TIFF format has long been a standard in the printing industry, is the most reliable and is the highest resolution of all of the different available graphics formats. JPEG and GIF images are primarily used in Internet applications which take advantage of their small file size.

"TIFF" format is an acronym standing for "Tagged Image File Format". We chose this format for its ability to hold massive amounts of detail. By using TIFF, you will see a cleaner, crisper definition in all of the images you send to us, both on the cover and in your book.

We exclusively accept the TIFF quality format for digital artwork, such as photographs submitted for inclusion in published works. These files can be large, averaging 10-15 Megabytes per 6"x9" image.

To make uploading your images easier, we recommend WINZIP compression software (available free at www.winzip.com). This program makes the TIFF much smaller so that it can be uploaded or e-mailed more efficiently.

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Will you scan photos or graphics for my book?

iUniverse will scan cover graphics and author photos for an additional fee of $5 per graphic. However, we do not scan book block (the actual inside text portion of the book) graphics.

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What size should I make my images?

Text graphics for inside the book must be in 300 dpi TIFF or JPG format, sized no smaller than 4"x6" (1200x 1800 pixels). Text graphics should be embedded in the document and also sent as individual TIFF or JPG files.

Cover graphics must also be in TIFF (.tif) file format, CMYK colorspace, 300 dpi resolution and matching the dimension of the final trim size, plus an 1/8" bleed on the top, right and bottom sides. (e.g., a cover for a 6"×9" book would need to be submitted at 6.125"×9.25".)

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What is the preferred resolution for submitting raster images?

300 dpi (dots per inch) is the preferred resolution for all grayscale images and/or photographs. Raster images that are only black-and-white without any shades of gray are called line art (similar to a cartoon in the daily newspaper). Line art should be 600 dpi resolution for optimum quality.

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What is a "grayscale image"?

A grayscale image is any raster image that contains shades of gray (more than just pure black and pure white). Scanned "black-and-white" photographs are a typical example of grayscale images. As with all images sent to iUniverse, grayscale images must be at least 300 dpi (dots per inch).

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What is a "TIFF" file?

The term TIFF stands for Tagged Image File Format and uses the ".tif" filename extension on some computer systems. It is the standard format for scanned images and for exporting grayscale and color images to other programs. TIFF is the only file format we accept for grayscale and color images.

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What happens to image quality if I scan my image and then increase its size?

Image resolution for raster images depends directly on the number of pixels per inch and is a direct reflection of the image quality. (See also: "What are the basic types of electronic images?") The final image resolution is also directly related to the final size of the scanned image. For example: Scan a 1" x 1" image at 300 dpi (dots or pixels per inch) resolution. Then scale it to 200 percent of original size (the image is now 2" x 2"). The 300 original image pixels are now stretched to cover twice as much area as before and the resulting printing resolution is 300 pixels per two inches (or 150 dpi) - half of the desired quality. This will result in a poor quality image.

Ideally, images should be scanned at the desired output size so the image does not have to be scaled. However, following the formula below when scanning your image will result in the desired image resolution when scaling an image: (desired final width of image ÷ width of original image) x desired final dpi = scan dpi

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What does "ppi" mean?

The term ppi refers to an image's resolution. It stands for "pixels per inch." It is effectively synonymous with dpi (dots per inch).

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What do you mean when you say a graphic must be "high-resolution?"

Your graphic image must be high-quality or high-resolution. In our case, this means it must have at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Anything lower than 300 dpi will not print with accurate color and clarity and may appear fuzzy or jagged when printed.

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How should I submit my preferred cover graphics to iUniverse?

Do not embed cover graphics in a file. Instead, you should submit a separate electronic image. Cover graphics must be in TIFF (.tif) file format, CMYK colorspace, 300 dpi resolution and matching the dimension of the final trim size, plus an 1/8" bleed on the top, right and bottom sides. Optionally, we can scan a cover graphic for an additional fee (see the fee schedule for the program you are interested in).

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Why do the colors used in my book cover vary slightly on the iUniverse Web site, on the PDF of the cover proof and on the actual printed book?

The same cover graphic is used by each medium (book cover, Web site photo, PDF) that needs to display or use it. A number of variables come into play when working with or viewing files electronically, such as calibration of the computer monitor, type of printer and lighting and perception of color. While the cover graphic remains the same, the medium with which the customer is viewing the cover does change, and so may the colors. Within the digital printing industry, there is an ongoing effort to improve the standards of cover reproduction and color management.

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What is the difference between CMYK and RGB color for graphics?

Short for Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black, and pronounced as separate letters, CMYK is a color model in which all colors are described as a mixture of these four process colors. CMYK is the standard color model used in offset printing for full-color documents such as book covers, since iUniverse, Inc. does not print color images in our books. Because such printing uses inks of these four basic colors, it is often called four-color printing.

In contrast, display devices (PDAs, monitors, etc.) generally use a different color model called RGB, which stands for Red-Green-Blue. One of the most difficult aspects of desktop publishing in color is color matching(properly converting the RGB colors into CMYK colors so that what gets printed looks the same as what appears on the monitor).

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My original book has color/sepia illustrations. How will they be printed?

All graphics inside the book block of iUniverse books appear in black and white or grayscale. We will do what we can to translate your illustrations; however, color and sepia illustrations may not scan well to black and white or grayscale format.

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